Mini-Test для тех, кто любит стиль
Признаюсь, что этот тест взят из одного ветхого учебника, но он настолько, как мне кажется, интересный, что имеет смысл обратить на него внимание. Если возникнет необходимость изложить теоретический материал по этой теме, свистите, и да отразится ваше эхо в материалах блога.
источник: Pyle M.A. and Munoz M.E., Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide.
Part A: Structure
Each sentence in Part A is an incomplete sentence. Four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), (D) are given beneath each sentence. You are to choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Remember to eliminate answers that are incorrect and to choose the one that would be correct in formal written English.
1. The defendant refused to answer the prosecutor’s questions __________.
(A) because he was afraid it would incriminate him
(B) for fear that they will incriminate him
(C) because he was afraid that his answers would incriminate him
(D) fearing that he will be incriminated by it
2. __________ will Mr. Forbes be able to regain control of the company.
(A) With hard work
(B) In spite of his hard work
(C) Only if he works hardly
(D) Only with hard work
3. Mrs. Walker has returned __________.
(A) a wallet back to its original owner
(B) to its original owner the wallet
(C) the wallet to its originally owner
(D) the wallet to its original owner
4. The hospital owes __________ for the construction of the new wing.
(A) the government twenty million dollars
(B) for the government twenty millions dollars
(C) to the government twenty million dollars
(D) twenty millions of dollars to the government
5. Maria __________ that she could not attend classes next week.
(A) told to her professors
(B) said her professors
(C) told her professors
(D) is telling her professors
6. Having been asked to speak at the convention, __________.
(A) some notes were prepared for Dr. Casagrande
(B) Dr. Casagrande prepared some notes
(C) the convention members were pleased to hear Dr. Casagrande
(D) some notes were prepared by Dr. Casagrande
7. __________ so many people been out of work as today.
(A) More than ever before
(B) Never before have
(C) In the past, there never have
(D) Formerly, there never were
8. The artist was asked to show some paintings at the contest because __________.
(A) he painted very good
(B) they believed he painted well
(C) of their belief that he was an good artist
(D) the judges had been told of his talents
9. Having finished lunch, __________.
(A) the detectives began to discuss the case
(B) the case was discussed again by the detectives
(C) they discussed the case
(D) a bunch of detectives discussed the case
10. Ms. Sierra offered __________ because she had faith in his capabilities.
(A) to Mr. Armstrong the position
(B) Mr. Armstrong the position
(C) the position for Mr. Armstrong
(D) Mr. Armstrong to the position
11. __________ did Jerome accept the job.
(A) Only because it was interesting work
(B) Because it was interesting work
(C) Only because it was interested work
(D) The work was interesting
12. __________ were slowly lowered to the ground for medical attention.
(A) The victims who were screaming and who were burning
(B) The screaming burn victims
(C) The screamed burnt victims
(D) The victims who were burning screamed
13. This car has many features including __________.
(A) stereo, safety devices, air condition, and it saves gas
(B) good music, safe devices, air conditioning, and gas
(C) stereo, safety devices, air conditioned, and good gas
(D) stereo, safety devices, air conditioning, and low gas mileage
14. The proposal was tabled __________ that it would be helpful.
(A) temporarily because there was not sufficient evidence
(B) because for the time being there were not sufficient evidence
(C) because at the present time there was not sufficient evidence
(D) temporarily because there was not sufficient enough evidence
15. Adams was dismissed from his position __________.
(A) because his financial records were improperly
(B) because financewise he kept poor records
(C) for keeping improper financial records
(D) for keep financial records that were improper
Part B: Written Expression
Each question on this mini-test consists of a sentence in which four words or phrases are underlined. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked A, B, C, D. You are to identify the one underlined word or phrase that would not be acceptable in standard written English. Circle the letter of the underlined portion which is not correct.
16. Some(A) Italian scholars stressed(B) the study of(C) grammar, rhetoric, learning (D) about history, and poetry.
17. When the tank car carried(A) the toxic(B) gas derailed, the firemen tried(C) to isolate the village from(D) all traffic.
18. While the boys were ice skating(A), they slip(B) on the thin ice and fell(C) into(D) the deep water.
19. If motorists do not observe(A) the(B) traffic regulations, they(C) will be stopped, ticketed, and have to pay a fine(D).
20. Fred, who usually conducts the choir rehearsals(A), did not show up(B) last night because he had(C) an accident on his way to the practice (D).
21. A short time(A) before her operation last(B) month, Mrs. Carlyle dreams(C) of her daughter who lives overseas(D).
22. The atmosphere of friendliness in Andalusia(A) is open, warm and gives a welcome feeling(B) to all who(C) have the good(D) fortune to visit there.
23. Now that(A) they have successfully(B) passed the TOEFL, the students were(C) ready to begin(D) their classes at the university.
24. Being that he was(A) a good swimmer, John jumped into(B) the water and rescued(C) the drowning(D) child.
25. Some of the(A) people were standing(B) in the street watched(C) the parade, while others(D) were singing songs.
26. The(A) carpenters tried to join together(B) the pieces of the(C) broken beam, but found it impossible(D) to do.
27. As soon as Pete had arrived(A), he told us(B) that he will be leaving(C) for London tomorrow after the(D) board meeting.
28. In Rome, Venice, and other(A) cities, there developed(B) an intellectual movement called humanism, which is(C) the basis of(D) the Renaissance.
29. The(A) teacher repeated the assignment again(B) for the students, since they(C) had difficulty understanding what to do after he had explained(D) it the first time.
30. The way we react(A) to other people, the educational training we received(B), and the knowledge we display are all part(C) of our cultural heritage(D).
31. When(A) you come after class this afternoon, we discussed(B) the(C) possibility of your(D) writing a research paper.
32. Mantovani conducted(A) the orchestra gracefully and with style(B) to the delight(C) of his appreciative(D) audience.
33. Having finished(A) his term paper before the(B) deadline, it was delivered(C) to the professor before(D) the class.
34. After learning(A) all the details about the project(B), the contractor told us them(C) at the planning meeting(D).
35. The new student’s progress advanced forward(A) with such(B) speed that all(C) his teachers were amazed(D).
36. After Mr. Peabody had died(A), the money from his estate reverted back(B) to the company which(C) he had served(D) as president for ten years.
37. In the distance could be seen(A) the sleepy(B) little village with their(C) closely clustered adobe houses(D) and red, clay-tile roofs.
38. Although(A) the weather was not perfect, a bunch of(B) people turned out(C) for the annual(D) parade.
39. After she had dressed and ate(A) breakfast, Lucy rushed off(B) to her(C) office for a meeting with(D) her accountant.
40. After(A) the rain had let out(B), the Mitchells continued(C) their hike(D) up the mountain.
Mini-test: Stylistic Problems
For Part A of this mini-test, the answer key analyzes why each incorrect answer choice is incorrect.
1. (A) Style error. There is no antecedent for the pronoun it.
(B) 2 style errors. Refused … will is an incorrect sequence of tense; there is no antecedent for the pronoun they.
(D) 2 style errors. There is an incorrect sequence of tense; there is no antecedent for the pronoun it.
2. (A) and (B) Style error. Because the structure of the sentence is auxiliary + subject + verb, the sentence must begin with an adverbial.
(C) Vocabulary error. Hardly means «almost».
3. (A) Style error. It is redundant to say return … back.
(B) Grammar error. When the indirect object precedes the direct object, no preposition is possible.
(C) Grammar error. Originally is an adverb and is not correct because it modifies the noun owner.
4. (A) Correct.
(B) 2 grammar errors. It is not correct to use a preposition when the indirect object precedes the direct object; when million is preceded by a number, it cannot be plural (one million, two million).
(C) Grammar error. It is not correct to use a preposition when I indirect object precedes the direct object.
(D) 2 grammar errors. When million is preceded by a number it cannot be plural, and when million is preceded by a number and followed by a noun, the preposition of is incorrect.
5. (A) Grammar error. Tell must be followed directly by the indirect object; there can be no preposition.
(B) Grammar error. It is not correct to follow the verb say with the name of a person or people.
(D) Grammar error. Is telling … could is an incorrect sequence of tense.
6. (A), (C), and (D) Style errors. These choices contain dangling participles. Dr. Casagrande is the subject of having been asked, and thus his name must follow the comma.
7. (A) Grammar error. The only verb in the sentence is a past participle been, and choice (A) contains no auxiliary verb.
(B) Correct. Adverbial + auxiliary + subject + verb.
(C) Grammar error. The choice uses incorrect word order.
(D) Grammar error. The choice uses incorrect word order; were cannot be followed by the participle been.
8. (A) Grammar error. Good is an adjective and modifies the verb painted; it should always be well.
(B) Style error. The pronoun they has no antecedent.
(C) Style error. The pronoun their has no antecedent; an cannot precede a word beginning with a consonant sound.
9. (A) Correct.
(B) Style error. This choice contains a dangling participle. The detectives is the subject of having finished and must immediately follow the comma.
(C) Style error. The pronoun they has no antecedent.
(D) Style error. A bunch of is slang and not appropriate in formal English.
10. (A) Grammar error. It is not correct to use a preposition when the indirect object precedes the direct object.
(C) Grammar error. For is the wrong preposition (offer something to somebody).
(D) Grammar error. This choice uses incorrect word order.
11. (A) Correct.
(B) Style error. Because the construction is auxiliary + subject + verb, the sentence must begin with an adverbial.
(C) Grammar error. Interested should be interesting.
(D) Style error. This choice uses incorrect word order.
12. (A) Style error. The choice is verbose, using too many unnecessary words (repeating who were).
(C) Grammar error. Screamed should be screaming.
(D) Grammar error. The conjugated verb screamed immediately before the verb were is not possible.
13. (A) Improper word choice. It should read air conditioning; and it saves gas is not parallel.
(B) Improper word choice. Good music does not mean the same as stereo; a safe device is a device that is safe, but a safety device is a device that makes something else safe; gas is not a «feature».
(C) Air conditioned is improper word choice; good gas does not mean the same as low gas mileage.
14. (A) Correct.
(B) Grammar error. Were is plural and evidence is non-count.
(C) Style error. At the present time is not correct because the sentence is in the past.
(D) Style error. Sufficient and enough have the same meaning and when used together are redundant.
15. (A) Grammar error. Improperly is an adverb. An adverb cannot modify the noun records.
(B) Style error. Financewise is not correct.
(D) Grammar error and style error. For keeping is correct, not for keep (preposition + [verb + ing]); financial records that were improper should be improper financial records because it is the more concise way of conveying the idea.
16. (D) should be history. History is parallel structure; noun, noun, noun.
17. (A) should be carrying. Use the present participle because the subject (the tank car) was involved in the action.
18. (B) should be slipped. The correct sequence of tenses is were … slipped.
19. (D) should be fined. For parallel structure, all past participles are required.
20. (C) should be had had. The past perfect should be used; the accident happened first.
21. (C) should be dreamed. Use past time because it happened last month.
22. (B) should be welcoming. For parallel structure, all adjectives are required.
23. (C) should be are. Now indicates present time.
24. (A) should be ?. The wording is verbose. The sentence should read: Being a good swimmer...
25. (C) should be watching. Were standing… watching is correct parallel structure.
26. (B) should be join. It is redundant to say join together.
27. (C) should be would be leaving. The correct sequence of tense is told … would be.
28. (C) should be was. Was (past) is the correct sequence of tense because the sentence is in the past.
29. (B) should be ?. It is redundant to say repeat again.
30. (B) should be receive. For parallel structure, react … receive … display (all present tense) is required.
31. (B) should be will discuss. The correct sequence of tense is come … will discuss.
32. (B) should be stylishly. Parallel structure requires gracefully (adverb) … stylishly (adverb).
33. (C) should be he delivered it. A person is the subject of the verb having finished, and thus that person’s name must appear immediately after the comma.
34. (C) should be them to us. Two pronouns cannot take the order of indirect object + direct object.
35. (A) should be advanced. It is redundant to say advance forward.
36. (B) should be ?. It is redundant to say revert back.
37. (C) should be its. Village is singular, so the possessive pronoun must also be singular.
38. (B) should be many. A bunch of is slang.
39. (A) should be eaten. Parallel structure requires had dressed and eaten.
40. (B) should be let up. Let up means «to diminish»; let out means «dismiss».