Типы упражнений: заключение
В завершение нашей эпопеи о типах упражнений хотелось бы обратить внимание читателей ещё на два типа упражнений: Multiple matching и Multiple-choice questions.
Multiple matching (reading) предполагает выбор из нескольких вариантов в соответствии с содержанием прочитанного.
Чтение с пониманием деталей при выполнении такого упражнения желательно, но не обязательно, так как главное – найти в отрывках соответствия данным после текста предложениям. Нужно выявить слова и фразы, которые обозначают то же самое.
1) Бегло прочитать тексты для получения общего представления о прочитанном.
2) Прочитать предложения к тексту.
3) Найти в тексте фразы и слова, которые выражают ту же идею, что и предложение.
Пример подобного упражнения из рт 2008-09 вар 4:
Прочитайте текст и выберите вариант ответа, соответствующий содержанию прочитанного текста. Укажите номер выбранного варианта в бланке ответов.
§1. “It’s not what you know but who you know that counts.” People who get on in life may be successful not because they deserve it, but because of influential friends or the right background. We say “Ah yes, he must have gone to the right school”, or “She must come from a good family.” We may suspect that some people in positions of authority are there because they belong to the right group or party. To get something done – a signature on a document, or a quick decision – it helps to know someone “on the inside”. At least, this is the widespread belief.
§2. It is a comforting belief too. If your boss strikes you as incompetent, it is tempting to believe that he only got the job because his father pulled some strings. If someone else gets the job which you should have had, well, the “old boy network” must be operating. And yet, if we can get what we want by “having a word” with so-and-so, or by getting so-and-so to put in a good word for us, which of us would not take advantage of the opportunity?
§3. Often it is quite harmless. For instance, when Miguel went with Julia to visit Michelle in hospital, he bumped into someone he knew, a doctor who had been at medical school with his father. As a result of this chance meeting, Miguel was able to find out a great deal about Michelle’s condition. Julia was not only grateful to him for making use of his connection, but delighted that she was able to learn so much by this means which she might never have found out otherwise.
§4. At the other extreme it can be very destructive. I once met a brilliant young engineer who worked in a chemical plant. Because of her knowledge and experience, she should have been promoted to Production Manager. Instead, the job went to a man who was totally unsuited for the post. Everyone knew that he only got it because he was politically acceptable to his superiors. This injustice demoralized the young engineer and many of her colleagues. It also meant that the factory was much less efficient than it could have been.
§5. All the same, we should not be pessimistic. More and more, the modern world depends on having people who are in the job because they are good enough, not just because their face fits. There is a story of a factory owner who sent for an engineer to see to a machine which would not go. He examined it, then took out a hammer and tapped it, once. The machine started up immediately. When he presented his bill, the owner protested, “This can’t be right! $100 just for tapping a machine with a hammer?” The engineer wrote out a new bill: “For tapping a machine, $1; for knowing where to tap it, $99.” Maybe it is what you know that really counts, after all.
A36. Miguel knew the doctor at the hospital because:
1) Miguel’s father and the doctor had studied together.
2) Miguel’s father was also a doctor.
3) Miguel had been at school with his son.
A37. The engineer at the chemical plant was not promoted because:
1) her bosses did not think she was knowledgeable enough for the job.
2) the man who got the promotion was more experienced than she was.
3) her bosses did not approve of her opinions.
A38. The engineer who repaired the machine was right to charge ?100 because:
1) he was charging for his knowledge and expertise.
2) the factory owner could not have repaired it himself.
3) he hit the machine to get it started again.
A39. We believe that many people have succeeded in life because they have some special advantage. We believe this because:
1) it makes us feel superior to them.
2) it is what always happens in life.
3) it gives us an excuse for our own lack of success.
Несколько иные цели преследует упражнение Multiple-choice questions. C помощью вопросов с вариантами ответов в конце текста проверяются детали, в том числе взгляд и мнение автора. Важно уловить настроение текста, сконцентрировав внимание на использованной для этого лексике.
Настроение автора передают прилагательные interesting, boring, optimistic, disappointing, surprised, etc. Следовательно, нужно соотнести по значению прилагательные в тексте и в предложениях для выбора. Кроме того, следует обратить внимание на иные средства выражения уверенности/неуверенности, например: apparently, it seems, they say, etc. (Эти слова не выражают полную уверенность, скорее, информированность автора.)
Пример подобного упражнения мы видим в материалах 3 этапа РТ этого года, задания А36-А39.