ban vs prevent

mish

Рассмотрим два синонимичных глагола ban и prevent. Нас интересует также последующий предлог from.

Prevent [prı`vent] v 1. предотвращать, предупреждать; предохранять
2. (часто from) мешать, препятствовать, не допускать

preventto stop something from happening, or stop someone from doing something

If someone or something prevents you from doing something, they do not allow you to do it.

e. g. My only idea was to prevent him from speaking.
Cotton mittens will prevent the baby from scratching his own face.

To prevent something means to ensure that it does not happen.

Synonyms: prevent, preclude, avert, obviate, forestall
These verbs mean to stop or hinder something from happening, especially by advance planning or action.

ban [bæn] v. налагать запрет, запрещать

To prohibit, especially by official decree.

Synonyms: forbid, prohibit, disallow, bar, exclude, ostracize, outlaw, banish, suppress, veto, restrict, censor, disqualify.

Имеем предложение с пропущенным словом. banned from или prevented from?

Now CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) has taken on the responsibility of getting 800 species of animals and plants____from international trade and another 23,000 placed under strict controls.

Обратимся к контексту.

Деятельность CITES (читается сай-тис), направлена на сохранение исчезающих видов животных и растений:

Endangered species are protected on international levels as well. For example, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an agreement between 150 countries worldwide. Endangered species are listed under one of two appendices of CITES (pronounced sigh-tees). If a species is listed under Appendix I, the member countries have agreed not to trade (buy and sell) that species commercially. If a species is listed under Appendix II, the member countries have agreed to trade that species commercially only if it does not endanger the survival of the species.

Вопрос: задача CITES предотвратить или запретить? Очевидно, предотвратить.

Обратимся к грамматике. Словари дают выражение to ban doing sth и ban from doing sth. Но имеется и вариант ban from + N

From Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 8th Ed.
ban
1. ~ sth to decide or say officially that sth is not allowed
Syn: ↑prohibit
• Chemical weapons are banned internationally.
• a campaign to ban smoking in public places
2. usually passive to order sb not to do sth, go somewhere, etc, especially officially
• ~ sb from sth He was banned from the meeting.
• ~ sb from doing sth She’s been banned from leaving Greece while the allegations are investigated.

From Macmillan English Dictionary (En-En)
2. to say officially that someone is not allowed to do something
He was banned for three months for driving with no insurance.
ban someone from (doing) something : She was banned from competing for two years after failing a drugs test.

Кажется, вопрос проясняется и нужно prevent. Однако в данном предложении наблюдается конструкция get sth done. Конструкция предполагает, что подлежащее ожидает от других каких-то действий.  Очевидно, нужно добиться исключения 800 видов растений и животных из международной торговли, а ещё большее количество 23,000 взять под контроль.

Подведём итог написанному. Официальный запрет на что-то — ban from (doing) sth, особенно в Passive Voice. Prevent from = to stop, но без оттенка prohibit. Kонструкция get sth done приравнивается к Passive Voice. Добавим ко всему прочему контекст.

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