Задание А17 в централизованном тестировании касается конкретно употребления союзов. Не стоило бы тратить время на один только пункт, если бы не тот факт, что установление смысловых связей между частями сложного предложения, а также употребление времён глагола в связном тексте также подразумевает знание союзов. Повторим некоторые из них.
Types of Clauses:
?time clauses: when, as, no sooner… than, while, before, the moment that, since, after, hardly… when, till/untill, by the time, whenever, as long as, as soon as, etc.
?clauses of reason: as/since, because, the reason for/why, because of/due to, etc.
?clauses of result: so, so/such… that, as a result, therefore, consequently/as a consequence, etc.
?clauses of contrast: but, although/even though, in spite of/despite, however, yet, while/whereas, nevertheless, etc.
?clauses of manner: as if/as though, like
?clauses of purpose: to, in order to/so as to/ so that/in order that, in case, etc.
I. Remember the following conjunctions used in time clauses:
as когда; в то время как, по мере того как
no sooner… than used for saying that something happens immediately after something else
while пока; в то время как; когда
the moment that = as soon as…
since с, со, после ( какого-л. момента )
after потом, затем
hardly… when едва
till/until yказывает на момент, вплоть до которого совершается действие, до
by the time к тому времени. тем временем
whenever когда бы ни /всякий раз когда
as long as пока; до тех пор пока
II. Read the sentences attentively and make them complete by filling in the necessary conjunctions. Drag your mouse to check the answers.
- I thought I heard him come in while we were having dinner.
- He was quite shocked when I told him.
- I’ll keep you company till the train comes.
- Once he starts a decorating job he won’t stop until it’s finished.
- I went there when I was a child.
- No sooner had I started mowing the lawn than it started raining.
- While I was in Italy I went to see Alessandro.
- «I’m going to the post office.» «While you’re there can you get me some stamps?»
- Before we make a decision, does anyone want to say anything else?
- I want to see him the moment he arrives.
- You may stay here as long as you live.
- No sooner had they reached Edinburgh than they were ordered to return to London.
- I’ll call you as soon as I get home from work.
- No sooner had it begun than the rain seemed to end.
- I’ve been very busy since I came back from holiday.
- You can ask for help whenever you need it.
- Three months after they moved out, the house was still empty.
- Soon/shortly after we joined the motorway, the car started to make a strange noise.
- I went to the post office straight/immediately after I left you.
- No sooner had he gone than one of the cameramen approached.
- Hardly had the men started training than they were sent into battle.
- I think I can come but I won’t commit myself till I know for sure.
- By the time we arrived, the other guests were already there.
- Whenever she comes, she brings a friend.
- We’ll go as long as the weather is good.
- I’m ready to go out as soon as it stops raining.
- The moment she walked through the door I thought she looked different.
Note: the examples were taken mainly from Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 3d Edition.