I. Open the brackets using the correct form of the verbs.
Stephanie MacGuire, the writer, has had an unusual life.
When she was very young Stephanie’s parents 1) ______ (murder) by guerrillas in South East Asia, and she herself 2) ______ (bring up) among them for several years.
When she was ten, she 3) ______ (find) by aid workers, who 4) ______ (arrange) for her to return to the UK, where she 5) ______ (receive) by her only living relatives, her aunt and uncle. They 6) ______ (agree) to look after her, and though she 7) ______ (not, maltreat), they 8) ______ (not, give) her any affection.
At first Stephanie 9) ______ (hate) England, partly because she 10) ______ (not, speak) English at all well.
After two years she 11) ______ (send) to a well-known boarding school, where fortunately she 12) ______ (befriend) by a highly sensitive teacher, Jayne Abbott, who 13) ______ (understand) that she 14) ______(throw) into an alien environment.
Under Jayne’s influence Stephanie 15) ______ (adapt) to life in England; indeed, her knowledge of English 16) ______ (grow) so fast that by the time she 17) ______(reach) her sixteenth birthday, her first short stories 18) ______ (already, publish) in the Rambler.
Since then her literary career 19) _____ (be) a great success. Six of her novels 20) _____ (publish) so far; the first one 21) ______ (deal) with her childhood experiences in South East Asia, and all her subsequent novels 22) ______ (base) in England. Last year she 23)______ (short-list) for the Booker Prize.
We are sure that in the coming years many people 24) ______ (inspire) by her influence, for even today she 25) ______ (regard) as one of the great courageous women among her contemporaries.
II. For questions 1-7, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given.
1. You must do exactly what the manager tells you.
You must____________instructions exactly.
2. I am totally convinced that you’ll pass the exam.
In my opinion, there ____________ your failing the exam.
3. Not many people came to the wedding.
Only………………………people came to the wedding.
4. I haven’t got any money left.
5. The play was shorter than we had expected.
The play didn’t ____________ we had expected.
6. I couldn’t concentrate fully because of the noise coming from the next room.
The noise coming from the next room ____________ to concentrate fully.
7. The twins described their experience to me in detail.
The twins gave ____________their experience.
III. For questions 1-16, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.
NICER THAN CHOCOLATE
Sales of chocolate in Britain have fallen (1) ______the first time in 50 years. According to the survey, this is largely (2) ______ children prefer to spend their pocket money on mobile phones. Schoolchildren who (3) ______ to visit their local shop to buy sweets are now buying top-up cards for their mobiles instead, (4) ______ that they can send their friends text messages. Sociologists see this move away (5) ______ sweets towards the use of mobile telephones as an example of (6) ______ teenage life is changing as a result (7) ______ new technology.
14-year-old Susannah Hedgely, (8) ______ has run up a bill of nearly ?300 on her mobile phone in the past two months, (9) ______ majority of it on texting, is typical of the trend. Almost (10) ______ exception, the teenagers in her circle of around 50 friends own mobiles.
Susannah was originally given one so she could (11) ______her parents know when she was (12) _____ to be late home from school, but she now sends up (13) ______ 60 text messages per day «Rather (14) ______ go to the shop and get a chocolate bar to cheer (15) _______ up, I ring my friends and go out to meet them,» she says. «I (16)______ once a big chocolate eater, but now I only have about one chocolate bar a week.»
IV. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
JOGGING IN THE PARK
Despite the increasing (1) ______of physical exercise POPULAR
in recent years, only 10 per cent of British people have taken out
(2) _______ of a gym. One reason for this, MEMBER
(3) ______suggest, is that gyms may have a negative RESEARCH
psychological effect on people. In tests, (4) ________ NATURE
environments were found to be far more (5)______ than BENEFIT
the artificial surroundings of a gym.
Maybe this provides an (6) _______ for why there has EXPLAIN
been a steady(7) ______in the number of people to be seen GROW
jogging in and around city parks in recent years, (8) ______ LIKE
the gym, where people are limited to a certain range of machines,
or (9) ______classes, outdoor activity has no boundaries, FIT
and parks are (10) ______ becoming places of INCREASE
adult, as well as child, recreation, (11) ______ in SPECIAL
the warmer weather.
V. Choose the most suitable alternative below to fill in the gaps in the following text (A, B,C or D).
Most of us take cheese for (1) ______. When we go to the supermarket, we expect to see a (2) ______of different cheeses to choose from.
But have you ever wondered how these differences (3)______ about?
Cheese has been produced and eaten for many thousands of years. No one knows for sure how we (4) ______ how to make cheese, but some animals, like lambs, produce cheese naturally in their stomachs. It’s possible that our (5) ______ found this cheese-like (6) ______ in the stomach of a dead lamb or calf and liked the taste.
Certainly, cheese is very practical. Milk (7) ______very quickly, but turning it into a (8) ______means that it can be kept for much longer. Cheese is also healthy, being full of protein, calcium and (9) ______acids.
Cheese can be made from the milk of animals such as goats, sheep, cows, and (10) ______ horses and reindeer. By (11) ______ the most popular cheese in the world is Cheddar, an English cheese made from cow’s milk. The amount of water and fat used in the production of cheese (12)______ whether it is hard or soft. The flavor of cheese (13) ______on the kind of bacteria used in the ripening process. All cheese has bacteria in it, but this is not (14) ______to humans.
VI. You are going to read an article about the music used in gyms. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.
Music to get fit by
An aerobics teacher argues that music can increase our workout productivity.
At college, I used to go to the gym regularly but I never liked the music they played in the classes. I trained as an instructor largely so that I could have control of the stereo. Now I teach twenty hours of aerobic classes a week and so I always associate physical activity with banging house music at 140 beats per minute.
This is not as crazy as you might think. Music and exercise have long been known to be close companions. 1) ……………… He is also the architect of the Brunei Music Rating Inventory (BMRI), designed to rate the motivational qualities of music.
Karageorghis says we have an underlying predisposition to react to musical stimuli. ‘Music is beneficial,’ he explains, ‘because of the similarities between rhythm and human movement. The synchronisation of music with
exercise consistently demonstrates increased levels of work output amongex ercise participants.’ 2) ……………….
For James Cracknell, the rower, the ideal music was a Red Hot Chili Peppers’ album, which he says played an integral part in his preparation and,ul timately, his Olympic victory. 3) ……………….. If you are not familiar with
this word, it means that during repetitive exercise, music essentially diverts attention away from the sensation of fatigue. The right music can almost persuade your body that you are in fact having a nice sit down and a coffee.
Not everyone, however, shares the same taste in tunes. ‘Can you turn that racket down?’ said a participant in one of my classes before storming out. Reaching a consensus on music is notoriously tricky — which makes communal exercise classes problematic. There are, however, some rules that professional instructors follow. 4) ………………………………
Most importantly, however, the music should mirror your heartbeat. The instructor should choose the music to go with the different phases of a class, from the warm up, to high intensity, to the final relaxing phase. It’s advisable to follow this sequence when you work out alone, too, and not make the mistake a good friend of minemade. 5)…………………
Instructors and gyms often buy ready-mixed CDs that come with a music licence, without which they can be fined heavily. A frequent complaint by those who go to classes is that they hear the same old songs over and over again. 6) …………… It is also true, sadly, that most people respond best in motivational terms to quite awful songs — music they wouldn’t necessarily be proud to have on their iPod.
7) …………. In order to prepare mentally, for example, golfers can get hold of a special range of music just for them. Whatever your sport, I’d like to give you some final words of advice. As Karageorghis suggests, enjoy the beat and let the music motivate you, but never forget your main objective is to exercise and music is only there to help you do that.
A But perhaps the most useful thing about music is that it allows even the humble gym-goer or runner to practise a technique used by elite athletes, known as ‘disassociation’.
В These days you can find music tailored to suit an incredibly diverse range of sports and exercise needs.
С One of them is that the music must be appropriate to the type of class and not just the instructor’s personal enthusiasm for a particular genre or artist.
D This is mostly because only a limited number of them are released for public performance each year, and partly because teachers universally favour the most popular tracks.