Form 8. Unit 8. Pioneers

Additional reading to Form 8 Unit 8.

The Pioneers

employee — служащий
bulky — громоздкий
impossible — невозможный
To make things worse — что ещё хуже
allow — позволять
penny arcades — галерея игровых автоматов
peephole — глазок
Moreover — более того
herald — объявлять, оповещать
essential — неотъемлемая часть; основное, самое главное

Thomas Edison together with his employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson invented the first motion camera in the early 1890s: the kinetograph, as it was called, was a bulky machine so heavy that transportation was impossible.
To make things worse, the device used to view the movies only allowed one person to watch at a time, thus it was not a projector. This device, the kinetoscope (pictured), was popular in penny arcades where guests would pay to watch short films through a peephole on top of the device.

Meanwhile in France, the Lumière brothers developed a device that was much more practical and user-friendly. This early movie camera, called the
cinematograph, was only slightly bigger than a shoe box. It was light, so light in fact that the brothers could take it practically anywhere to film whatever they wish. Moreover, the cinematograph was also a projector, which is why the Lumière brothers are sometimes heralded as the “fathers of cinema,” as
projection is an essential component of the movie experience.


Answer the questions:
1. When was the first motion camera invented?
2. Why was transportation of the kinetograph impossible?
3. How many people could watch movies using the kinetoscope?
4. Where was the cinematograph invented?
5. What was the size of that device?
6. Why are the Lumière brothers heralded as the «fathers of cinema»?

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